A mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus fungi, which grow whenever conditions are favorable (high moisture and temperature). Occurs in many diverse sources, ranging from major cereal crops to peanut butter, nuts and spices. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and among the most carcinogenic substances known. The main target organ in humans is the liver, but the risk of developing gallbladder cancer is also increased.
Biotechnology, or genetic engineering, is the process of using living organisms to improve qualities of a plant such as the plant’s ability to protect itself against damage or improving upon its ability to grow and produce.
Small strips of land kept in permanent vegetation, located between primary crops, for the purpose of intercepting pollutants, slowing erosion and managing environmental concerns. These strips often also provide habitat for native wildlife and pollinators.
Conservation tillage includes all forms of reduced tillage. Tillage is the practice of plowing soil to prepare it for planting or after harvest to remove crop debris from the field. For example, ”no-till” involves no disturbance of the soil; and “reduced-till” or “strip-till” involves minimal disturbance. The benefits of this practice include improved moisture retention and reduced soil erosion.
Stalks, leaves, and cobs that remain in a cornfield after harvest. These materials are the primary source for cellulosic ethanol production and can at times be gathered for animal feeds or grazed. Also referred to as crop residue.
Cover crops are planted between growing seasons of a farmer’s primary cash crop, for the purpose of improving soil health, reducing erosion, improving soil fertility, and/or reducing soil compaction. There are three primary types of cover crops: tubers like the Tillage Radish; grasses like cereal rye, oats or annual rye grass; and legumes like clover. These cover crops are at times grazed or harvested, but most commonly are terminated through winter freeze or prior to the next crop planting season.
Qualitative and quantitative processes used to enhance productivity and business gain. In agriculture, analytics help farmers become more efficient with their resources, more precise with the timing and rate of inputs, and reduces impact on the environment in the process.
Piping systems, most commonly corrugated plastic tubing, that are placed underneath the soil to remove excess water from a field of crops. This allows roots to develop to their desired depth and removes standing water from lower portions of the field. This also assists in minimizing erosion by helping excess water exit the field.
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a substance which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time, i.e. the rate at which 50% of the maximal effect is observed
Half maximal effective rate (ER50) refers to the rate of a substance which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time, i.e. the rate at which 50% of the maximal effect is observed.
Quality System, providing the formal framework for the conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental safety studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported, and archived. The details are laid down in legislative regulations as OECD Advisory Documents, EPA and FDA Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) rules and other national laws as e.g. German Chemical Law.
Designed to support precise approaches to nutrient management, grid sampling is the practice of taking multiple samples of soil per acre. Traditional soil sampling densities were 1 or 2 samples for every 3 or 4 acres. Grid sampling calls for as many as 42 samples per acre which are mapped and flagged throughout the field digitally, leading to an improved understanding of variability in soil nutrient needs on across the field.
Hybrid seeds are created using traditional breeding methods where two different but compatible plants are crossbred to create a new plant — also known as a hybrid. An example of this is the Honeycrisp apple. Developed through the University of Minnesota's apple breeding program, the Honeycrisp is a hybrid produced by breeding two different apples to create a new, crisper and juicier type of apple.
The inherent property of an agent or situation which has the potential to cause adverse effects when an organism, system or population is exposed to that agent, based on its chemical, physical or biological characteristics (e.g. the intrinsic hazard of sharp knife is to cut).
The process of managing the amount, source, timing, and method of nutrient (fertilizer) application, with the goal of optimizing farm productivity while minimizing nutrient losses that could create environmental problems.
Any substance or mixture of substances used to alter the life cycle of any pest. They can be naturally derived or synthetically produced.
Herbicide: pesticide for weeds
Insecticide: pesticide for insects
Fungicide: pesticide for fungus
Miticide: pesticide for mites
Nematicide: pesticide for nematodes
"Any substance or mixture of substances used to alter the life cycle of any pest. They can be naturally derived or synthetically produced.
Herbicide: pesticide for weeds
Insecticide: pesticide for insects
Fungicide: pesticide for fungus
Miticide: pesticide for mites
Nematicide: pesticide for nematodes"
Precision agriculture is the use of advanced technology, equipment, and data analytics to improve crop production practices. Farmers analyze data from their machines, from their fields, and even from satellite imagery to help them be more efficient and accurate with their use of natural resources, such as water, soil, and fuel, as well as their use of inputs, such as fertilizer and crop protection products.
A safety margin is the factor that is added to account for uncertainties. For example, if a chronic test in fish showed no effects at 10μg/L, an assessment factor of 10 is still added, meaning that the acceptable concentration in water would be only 1μg/L. Safety factors in environmental risk assessments vary depending on area and test system, and are typically higher for the assessment of acute effects than for chronic effects.
Crop scouting, also known as field scouting, is the very basic action of traveling through a crop field, usually on foot, while making frequent stops for observations. Crop scouting is done so that a farmer can see how different areas of his or her field are growing and what stressors or pests may be present. If there are problems during the growing season, the farmer can work to mitigate them so those problems do not affect yield at harvest time.
Soil organic material is anything that was once alive and is now in or on the soil as it is decomposed into humus. Humus is organic material that has been decomposed by microorganisms and is readily changing form and mass as it decomposes.
A mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi species. Occurs mainly in cereals and corn. A potent estrogenic metabolite. In livestock known to cause infertility, abortion, breeding problems through the alteration of the hormone balance. Exposure of humans through the diet poses health concern due to the onset of several sexual disorders and alterations in the development of sexual apparatus.
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Progress is a
Human ingenuity drives progress in agriculture
Throughout history, humanity has improved lives and inspired breakthroughs that help address some of our biggest challenges. Our shared sense of inventiveness gave us agriculture—one of the oldest and most important inventions—and we believe it can do even more.
At Bayer, we’re harnessing the spirit of innovation to shape what’s possible for farmers, consumers, and the planet. Using the creative spark that comes from human ingenuity, we seek to deliver world-class innovation, set new standards in sustainability, and drive digital transformation.
Farmers need innovation not only to grow enough but to grow better for our planet and its people. We have leading research capabilities in biotechnology, crop protection, and data science to deliver tailored solutions to farmers faster than ever before. We seek digital tools that help drive innovation, and we collaborate with external partners large and small so we can create lasting change for people and the planet.
We believe every investment in innovation should also be an investment in sustainability. We are equally committed to helping reduce our environmental impact, as well as improving the lives of smallholder farmers. Our long-term success as a company lies not in selling more products but in providing farmers with the best tools and solutions so they can achieve better harvests using less water, land, and energy.
Data science and digital tools are powerful, innovative, and sustainable ways to improve the efficiency of Bayer’s own operations while empowering farmers to make better decisions in their fields. Like the smart tools that help billions of us make decisions about our daily lives, digital farming is enabling individual solutions tailored to each farm’s needs: the right product in the right place, at the right time, and in the right amount.
How are we shaping the future of agriculture?
As a new leader in agriculture, we understand our heightened responsibility to farmers, consumers, and the environment. That is why—when it comes to managing our business—we are raising the bar in transparency, sustainability, and engagement.
We strive to deliver the best new solutions for agriculture, and we hold ourselves to the highest standards in our interactions with farmers, policy makers, media, NGOs, and consumers who want to know more about our business.
We collaborate with others to find better solutions to address food, environmental, and social challenges.
We set high ethical standards to measure ourselves and our partners.
We serve farms of all sizes around the world and make our innovations as accessible as possible.
We enable smallholder farmers to seek more sustainable agriculture solutions.
We encourage diversity in agricultural practices.
We prioritize inclusion and diversity inside and outside our company.
We are committed to transparency and dialogue.
How will we know we are making a difference?
At Bayer, we are committed to improving lives through a food system that is better for farmers, consumers and the planet. These targets will be both ambitious and time-bound, with a combination of long-term thinking and short- to mid-term goals.
We cannot realize this vision alone. Turning today’s impossibilities into tomorrow’s breakthroughs requires strong collaboration with scientists, innovators, regulators, and farmers. But it also requires open, transparent dialogue that builds trust with consumers.
New ideas and better solutions almost always come from unexpected places—and unexpected people.
The scientists. The mathematicians. The engineers, data analysts, software developers, and countless others who are solving the most pressing challenges in agriculture.
Our company is made up of people with strong values and a high sense of integrity. We are 40,000 dedicated Crop Science employees working toward a future that matters to us all. We strive to discover farming practices that help our planet to thrive, and we hope to leave the world in a better place for generations to come.
At Bayer, we are passionate about developing people, driving our vision, and empowering others to achieve remarkable results. Together, we celebrate and leverage our collective strengths and our diverse perspectives, because our company will not only be based on our desire to shape the future of agriculture but on the employees who make it all possible.
The Crop Science Division of Bayer is driven by individuals constantly working to shape what’s next for agriculture.
Our employees think creatively about agricultural innovation. They rely on science and data, but they also depend on the power of human ingenuity to drive their ideas forward. The talent and commitment of our team allows our company to find better answers to even our best solutions.
At Bayer, we’re building an environment where employees of all genders, ethnicities, backgrounds, abilities, and orientations are welcome to contribute to the future of our planet.