Viola arvensis

Scientific Name Viola arvensis Murray
Common Names English: European field pansy, wild pansy, field violet, field pansy; German: Acker-Stiefmütterchen; French: Pensée, pensée des champs; Spanish: Pensamiento silvestre
Description Annual or hardy-annual, seed-propagated weed. V. arvensis is greatly varying in height, flower color and flower size.

Descriptions

Characteristic Features

Petals 5, creamy white or pale yellow with tinges of blue.
Sepals equal to or slightly shorter than the petals.

Cotyledons

Round-ovate, short-petiolate, with retracted tip.

Stems

Ascending or erect, usually ramified, 10-60 cm (3.93 - 23.62 inch) high.

Leaves

Sparse, notched on the margin, lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually tapering into the petiole, upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, short-petiolate; all with pinnatifid stipules at the base.

Propagatio Organs

Flowers

Single, long-pedunculate, axillary, with five petals (light yellow, whitish, pink to violet).

Flowering Period

April-October, nearly all year round.

Fruit

Capsules, globose, smooth, 5-7 mm (0.19 - 0.27 inch) long.

Seeds

Germination all year round, but mainly in autumn.
Seed germination depth 0.5-1 cm (0.19 - 0.39 inch), shallow germinator .
Seeds are brown, pear-like, shiny.

Viability Of Seeds

Up to 10 years.

Propagation

By seeds.

Occurrence

Habitat

Fields, roadsides, grassland.

Soil

Especially on light, sandy to medium soils.

Agricultural Importance

Crops in heavily infested areas suffer yield loss. V. arvensis contributes to lodging of cereals, and interferes with combine harvesting.

Control

Integrated Crop Management

Mechanical weed control methods at early growth stages result in good control of this weed species.

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