|Scientific Name||Viola arvensis Murray|
|Common Names||English: European field pansy, wild pansy, field violet, field pansy; German: Acker-Stiefmütterchen; French: Pensée, pensée des champs; Spanish: Pensamiento silvestre|
|Description||Annual or hardy-annual, seed-propagated weed. V. arvensis is greatly varying in height, flower color and flower size.|
Petals 5, creamy white or pale yellow with tinges of blue.
Sepals equal to or slightly shorter than the petals.
Round-ovate, short-petiolate, with retracted tip.
Ascending or erect, usually ramified, 10-60 cm (3.93 - 23.62 inch) high.
Sparse, notched on the margin, lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually tapering into the petiole, upper leaves oblong-lanceolate, short-petiolate; all with pinnatifid stipules at the base.
Single, long-pedunculate, axillary, with five petals (light yellow, whitish, pink to violet).
April-October, nearly all year round.
Capsules, globose, smooth, 5-7 mm (0.19 - 0.27 inch) long.
Germination all year round, but mainly in autumn.
Seed germination depth 0.5-1 cm (0.19 - 0.39 inch), shallow germinator .
Seeds are brown, pear-like, shiny.
Viability Of Seeds
Up to 10 years.
Fields, roadsides, grassland.
Especially on light, sandy to medium soils.
Heavily infested areas cause yield losses. V. arvensis increases lodging of cereals, and interferes with combine harvesting. V. arvensis is resitant to many herbicides commonly applied in winter cereals and oil seed rape.
Integrated Crop Management
Mechanical weed control methods at early growth stages result in good control of this weed.
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