Lamium amplexicaule

Scientific Name Lamium amplexicaule L.
Common Names English: Henbit dead-nettle; German: Stängelumfassende Taubnessel; French: Lamier amplexicaule; Spanish: Ortiga muerta menor, Conejitos, Gallitos
Description Annual or hardy-annual (facultative biennial), seed-propagated weed with deep taproot.

Descriptions

Characteristic Features

Upper leaves enclosing the stem.

Young Plant

See red dead-nettle, tips at the base usually not touching each other.

Stems

Erect, 10-20 cm (3.93 - 7.87 inch) high, ramified below, square, upwards softly haired.

Leaves

Crossed opposed, round-reniform, lower leaf pairs wide apart from each other, long-petiolate, upper leaves enclosing the stem, all reticulately wrinkled, margin deeply notched.

Propagation Organs

Flowers

Corolla bilabiate, pink to carmine, in dense axillary whorls.

Flowering Period

All year round with mild weather.

Fruit

Nutlets brown, 2 mm (0.078 inch) long, glabrous, 1-seeded, oblong-oval, keeled.

Seeds

Oblong to elliptical, white moldy.
Germination usually in autumn, but also spring. Henbit dead-nettle is a shallow germinator.

Viability of Seeds

About 5 years.

Propagation

By seeds.
40-200 seeds/plant.

Occurrence

Habitat

Waste ground, lawns, cultivated fields, pastures, roadsides, railroads, vineyards.

Soil

L. amplexicaule likes nutrient-rich, well-aerated lighter, sandy loam soils.

Agricultural Importance

High weed infestation causes yield loss. Mass infestation only occurs in warm areas (grape production). In cultivated areas that get tilled regularly, flowering plants can form large patches of pink color in the spring. L. amplexicaule prefers warmer areas than Lamium purpurea. The flowers provide nectar for bumblebees.

Control

Useful non-chemical contribution to Integrated Weed Management

Mechanical weeding including the use of a tine harrow may offer high levels of control when performed at the seedling stage.

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