|Scientific Name||Galinsoga parviflora Cav.|
|Common Names||English: Gallant soldier; German: Kleinblütiges Franzosenkraut, Kleinblütiges Knopfkraut; French: galinsoga à petites fleurs, galinsoge parviflore|
|Description||Seed-producing summer annual weed, 10 to 80 cm (3.93 - 31.49 inch) high and forms a taproot. G. parviflora originates from Peru and spread from France to Germany.|
Vigorous, up to 3 generations/year.
Spatulate, ovate acuminate, entire, flattened tip, lightly retracted in the middle.
Usually erect with several three-pronged ramifications, 10 - 80 cm (3.93 - 31.49 inch) tall.
Opposite, ovate acuminate, light green, margin finely dentate, lower leaves petiolate, upper leaves nearly sessile.
Terminal and axillary cyme.
Flower heads small, numerous, button-like with yellow tube-like disk florets and 5 white lingular margin florets.
Early summer - autumn.
Achenes sparsely appressed, pubescent or glabrous, cylindric to ovoid, with pappus attached. Central achenes ovate, black, covered with short white bristles pappus as long as the fruit, with 8-20 silvery and cut-margined scales. Marginal achenes smooth, 3-blunt-angled, without pappus.
Gallant soldier is a shallow germinator (up to 2 cm; 0.78 inch).
Germination occurs from late spring - summer.
Viability of Seeds
By seeds. 5,000-10,000 seeds/plant can be dispersed.
Arable land, waste places, pavements in towns.
Nitrogen-rich, warm and loamy or sandy loam soils.
Galinsoga parviflora grows best under moist conditions and therefore can become a serious problem under irrigation or in areas that receive year-round rainfall. It greatly reduces yield due to strong competition for water and nutrients and high abundance often occurs in corn fields. The high reproduction rate and longevity of the seeds causes long-term infestation. Resistant biotypes against herbicides containing Atrazine have been selected by intensive use of triazines.
Useful non-chemical contribution to Integrated Weed Management
Mechanical control methods are very effective against seedlings.
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