|Scientific Name||Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv|
|Common Names||English: Barnyard grass; German: Hühnerhirse; French: Panic pied-de-coq; Spanish: Zacate de agua, pinto|
|Description||Annual, tufted grass with fibrous, rather shallow roots.|
There is much introgression between Echinochloa species.
Plant branching from the base, rather tall, 80 -150 cm (31.49 - 59.05 inch), first leaves are dull or grayish green, with the stem purplish tinged, the youngest leaf is rolled.
Stout, erect to decumbent.
Leaf blades are glabrous, hairless, elongate, 5-20 mm (0.19 - 0.78 inch) wide, 8-60 cm (3.15 - 23.62 inch) long, with a white midrib.
Ligule is absent.
Youngest leaf is rolled.
Panicle erect or nodding, green or purple-tinged, 5-20 cm (1.96 - 7.87 inch) long.
9 - 12 racemes, 2 - 4 (-10) cm (0.78 - 1.57 - 3.93 inch) long, spreading, asc ending, sometimes branched.
Spikelets crowded, about 3 - 4 mm (0.12 - 0.16 inch) long excluding the awns.
First glume 1/3 as long as the spikelet; second glume and sterile lemma with short bristly hairs.
Awnless or on the nerves with awns, mostly 5 - 10 mm (0.19 - 0.39 inch) long.
Fruit is small; compressed dorsiventrally. Hilum short, 2.5-3.5 mm (0.098 - 0.14 inch) long, whitely glumes.
Germination occurs at the end of spring (warmth germinator).
Viability Of Seeds
3 - 7 years.
By seeds. Seeds can germinate at various times of the year with a 42 - 64 days life cycle and 3 - 4 months dormancy. 200 - 1,000 seeds/plant .
E. crus-galli is a cosmopolitan weed of the warm and temperate zones and occurs in waste places, rotation crops and aquatic biotops.
Primarily on moister, humus-rich and nutrient-rich, loamy sands and loams.
Additional Crop Information
Also in root crops and perennial crops (orchards, vineyards).
E. crus-galli is an important noxious weed grass with a long germination period from May till August (germination minimum temperature 10-20 o C) (50-68oF). Barnyard grass emerges in several waves and has a high competitive ability due to its high growth rate and intensive tillering. The corn yield can be reduced by 80 - 90 %.
Barnyard often is resistant to herbicides.
Integrated Crop Management
Crop rotation, repeated hoeing and hand weeding can reduce barnyard. A water depth of 10 - 20 cm (3.93 - 7.87 inch) in rice is recommended.
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