Bromus secalinus

Scientific Name Bromus secalinus
Common Names English: Rye brome; German: Roggen-Trespe; French: Brome faux seigle
Description B. secalinus is a tufted annual grass propagated by short living seeds, mostly germinating in winter wheat and winter barley, 10-30 cm (3.93 - 11.81 inch) tall, hardy annual, sometimes annual.

Descriptions

Characteristic Features

The awns are not very long, or even be missing totally. Caryopsis is plump and heavy.

Young Plant

At the youth stage the blades are covered with moderately stiff hairs above and harsh, the youngest leaf is rolled.

Stems

Erect, softly haired at the nodes and 30-100 cm (11.81 - 39.37 inch) high.

Leaves

The ligule is 1-4 mm (0.039 - 0.157 inch) long, toothed, yellow to brownish.
No auricles.
Upper sheaths are smooth and strongly nerved. Sheaths are tubular, hairless and usually closed.

Propagatio Organs

Flowers

The panicle (3 to 20 cm, 1.18 - 7.87 inch) long bears ascending branches, the lower ones becoming divergent when maturing. Spikelets are borne on elongate pedicels, 5 to 15 flowered, glabrous or scabrous, in maturity lax. The lemmas are spreading-ascending at maturity, strongly inrolling (thereby "opening" the spikelet), furthermore firm, subequal, obscurely 7-nerved, mostly 5 - 8 mm (0.19 - 0.31 inch) long. Awns straight or flexuous, 1 - 6 mm (0.039 - 0.23 inch) long, deciduous, sometimes slightly projecting in maturity.

Flowering Period

End of spring until summer.

Fruit

Achene-like.

Seeds

Germination occurs mostly in autumn, sometimes in spring.

Viability Of Seeds

Very short living seeds (1-2 years).

Propagation

By seeds, 800 -1,600 seeds per plant.

Occurrence

Habitat

Grainfields, meadows, wasteland, field borders, and roadsides.

Soil

B. secalinus prefers nitrogen rich, sandy to loamy and slightly acidic soils.

Additional Crop Information

Cereals, mostly wheat and barley.

Agricultural Importance

In Europe and parts of North America abundance and size of infested area is still increasing due to limited chemical control options. The use of selective ALS-inhibitors is only possible in wheat but not in barley. Reduced soil tillage and increasing proportion of winter cereals in the rotation, causes high yield loss in high density patches and sometimes results in difficulties at harvest.

Control

Integrated Crop Management

Careful seed cleaning and selection of weed free fields for seed propagation, planting competitive wheat and barley varieties, late sowing of winter wheat, moldboard plowing, rotating winter annual and summer annual crops, mowing field borders, may reduce the weed infestation. The previously practiced burning of infested fields provided valuable control but does not comply with anti-pollution and carbon dioxide avoidance considerations.

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